شناسایی متغییرهای محیطی تاثیرگذار بر توزیع گونه چکاوک گندم زار (Melanocorypha calandra) در منطقه داغ تنوع زیستی ایران-آناتولی

نوع مقاله: تنوع زیستی

نویسندگان

گروه محیط زیست، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران

10.22034/aej.2020.110514

چکیده

تغییرات اقلیمی، کاربری اراضی و عوامل انسانی از جمله محرک­ های اصلی تغییرات تنوع زیستی در قرن حاضر به­ شمار می ­روند. به گونه­ ای که اکثر مطالعات انجام گرفته در دهه­ های اخیر این واقعیت را در مطالعات خود نشان داده­ اند. زیستگاه­ های استپی از جمله زیستگاه ­هایی می ­باشند، که به­ شدت تحت تاثیر عوامل ذکر شده هستند. لذا مطالعه حاضر با هدف شناسایی مهم ترین متغیرهای اقلیمی، پوشش سرزمینی و انسانی بر توزیع گونه چکاوک گندم ­زار در محدوده منطقه داغ تنوع زیستی ایرانو-آناتولی انجام گرفت. از گونه چکاوک گندم­ زار به­ عنوان یک گونه شاخص از پرندگان علف ­زار در مدل ­سازی ­ها استفاده شد تا بتوان نحوه تاثیرپذیری سایر پرندگان هم ­زیستگاه را پیش ­بینی نمود. پس از جمع­ آوری نقاط حضور گونه در محدوده مورد مطالعه، مدل ­سازی زیستگاه گونه با وارد کردن لایه ­های اقلیمی، محیطی و انسانی و با استفاده از مدل حداکثر آنتروپی (MaxEnt) در فضای پکیج مدل ­سازی sdm انجام شد. نتایج حاصل از تجزیه و تحلیل­ ها و مدل ­سازی ­ها نشان داد که این گونه عمدتا ًوابسته به زیستگاه ­های غرب، شمال و مرکز منطقه ایرانو-اناتولی است. هم ­چنین فاکتور میانگین بارش سالیانه، میانگین تغییرات فصلی بارش و ردپای انسانی توانستند در مجموع 80 درصد در پیش ­بینی زیستگاه ­های مطلوب برای چکاوک گندم ­زار نقش داشته باشند. در مجموع به ­نظر می ­رسد که کشاورزی فشرده و تغییر الگوهای بارشی در دهه ­های اخیر از جمله موارد تاثیرگذار بر انتخاب زیستگاه پرندگان علف ­زار هستند. لذا جهت حفاظت از این گونه ­ها بایستی توجهات لازم به فاکتورهای ذکر شده در مدیریت سرزمینی صورت گیرد.

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