Effect of the different mix levels of organic (Formic acid+Format aminiom+Propionic acid+ Propinat acid) with and without Silymarin nano crystal on performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of broiler chickens

Document Type : (original research)


1 Department of Animal and Poultry Nutrition, Faculty of Animal Sciences, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran

2 Department of Animal and poultry Breeding and Genetic, Faculty of Animal Science, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran



The purpose of this study was to investigate mix the effect of different levels of dietary biotronic organic supplement with and without silymarin nanocrystal on growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of broiler chicks. This experiment was conducted in a 2×4 factorial arrangement with completely randomized design using 384 day-old broiler chicks in 8 treatments, 4 replications and 12 chicks per each replicate. The factors of interest included two levels of silymarin nanocrystal (with silymarin nanocrystal and without Silymarin nanocrystal) and four levels of biotronic supplement (0, 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg). The results showed that the utilization of biotronic organic supplement caused a decrease in feed intake and improvement of body weight gain and feed conversion ratio in all production periods (P<0.05). The utilization of silymarin nanocrystal had a significant effect on feed conversion ratio only in finisher period in comparison initial peiod and growth. Also, the use of silymarin nanocrystal caused significant increase in carcass charectristics in comparison treatmentsilymarin nanocrystal (P<0.05) while biotronic organic supplement significantly reduced liver and abdominal fat weights (P<0.05). biotronic organic supplement caused increase in thigh moisture percentage and decrease in post-slaughter malondialdehyde concentration in comparison without nanocrystalsilymarin and bioteronic supplement.Also, the utilization of biotronic organic supplement could decrease malondialdehyde content at 30 days post-slaughter. Generally in comparison control treatment.the interaction was not significant in any parameter, the use of biotronic organic supplement of the diet improved performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality.


  1. Vargas-Mendoza, N., Madrigal-Santillán, E., Morales-González, A., Esquivel-Soto, J., EsquivelChirino, C., García-Luna, Y. and González-Rubio, M., 2014. Hepatoprotective effect of Silymarin. World Journal of Hepatology. 6: 144-149.
  2. Kim, R.C., Ryo, Y.C., Cho, Y.J. and Rhee, M.S., 2006. Influenceof dietary a tocopherol acetatae supplement on cholesterol oxidation in retail pocked chicken meat during refrigerated storage. Bioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry. 70: 808-814.
  3. Erdogan, Z., Erdogan, S., Celik, S. and Unlu, A., 2005. Effects of ascorbic acid on cadmium induced oxidative stress and performance of broilers. Biological Trace Element Research. 104: 19-32.
  4. Farrar, J.J., Fuller-Farrar, J.P., Simon, L., Hilfiker, M.L., Stadler, B.M. and Farrar, W.L., 1987. Thymoma production of T cell growth factor (interleukin 2). Journal of Immunology. 125: 2555-2558.
  5. Pirgozliev, Y., Murphy, T.C., Owens, B., George, J. and Mccane M.E., 2003. Fumaric and sorbic acid as additives in broiler chicks. Research Veterinary Science. 84: 387-394.
  6. Gunal, M., Yayli, G., Kaya, O., Karahan, N. and Sulak, O., 2006. The Effects of antibiotic growth promoter, probiotic or organic acid supplementation on performance, intestinal microflora and tissue of broilers. International Journal of Poultry Science. 5: 149-155.
  7. Miyahi, M., Khajeh, G. and Lavaei, A., 1991. Investigating the addition of additives in the diet on some pathological and biochemical parameters of the blood serum of broiler chickens. The third Congress of Animal Sciences of the country in Mashhad. (In Persian)
  8. Skinner, J.T. and Walder, P., 2006. Fumaric and propionic acids enhances performance of broiler chickens. Poultry Science. 70: 444-447.
  9. Ahmad, U., Faiyazuddin, M., Hussain, M.T., Ahmad, S.M., Alshammari, T. and Shakeel, F., 2015. Silymarin: an insight to its formulation and analytical prospects. Acta Physiol ogiae Plantarum. 37: 184-187.
  10. Asadi, Y., Abutaleb, N. and Sharifi, A.M., 2009. Investigating the protective (antioxidant) effect of silymarin on cell death and fat peroxidation production caused by high glucose in PC12 nerve cell culture. Iranian Journal of Diabetes and Metabolism. 9(3): 227-234. (In Persian)
  11. Rastogi, R., Srivastava, A.K. and Rastogi, A.K., 2001. Long term effect of aflatoxin B1 on lipid peroxidation in rat liver and kidney: Effect of picroliv and silymarin. Phytother. ResAbbriviation. 15: 307-310.
  12. Schiavone, A., Righi, F., Quarantelli, A., Bruni, R., Serveneh, P. and Fusari, A., 2007. Use of silybum marianum fruit extract in broiler chicken nutrition: influence on performance and meatquality. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition. 91: 256-262.
  13. Tedesco, D., Steidler, S., Galletti, S., Tameni, M., Sonzogni, O. and Ravarotto, L., 2006.Efficacy of silymarin-phospholipid complex in reducing the toxicity of aflatoxin B1 in broiler chicks. Poultry Science. 83: 1839-1843.
  14. Suchy, P., Strakova, E., Kummer, V., Herzig, I., Pisarikova, V. and Blechova R., 2008. Hepatoprotective effect of milk thistle (Silybum marianum) seed cakes during the chicken broiler fattening. Acta Veterinaria Brno. 77: 31-38.
  15. Tarladgis, B.G., Wolfs, B.M., Younathan, M.T. and Dugan, L., 1960. Adistilation method for the quantitive determination of malonaldehyde in rancid food. Journal of American oil chemistry. 3: 44-48.
  16. Cowison, A.J. and Acamovic, T., 2006. Phyticacid and phytase: Implications for protein utilization by poultry. Poult. Sci. 85: 873-885.
  17. SAS Institute. 2003. SAS user's guide.Software version 1998. SAS InstituteInc., Cary, NC.
  18. Gawe, A., Kotonski, B., Madej, J.A. and Mazurkiewicz, M., 2003. Effect of silymarin on chicken and turkey broilers’ rearing and the production indices of reproduction hen flocks. Medycyna Weterynaryjna. 59: 517-520.
  19. Soltan, M.A., 2008. Effect to dietary organic acid supplementation on egg production, egg quality and some blood serum parameters in laying hens. International Journal of Poultry Science. 7: 613-621.
  20. Dibner, J.J. and Buttin, P., 2002. Use of organic acids as a model to study the impact of gut microflora on nutrition and metabolism. Journal of Applied Poultry Research. 11: 453-463.
  21. Chand, N., Din Muhammad, F., Durrani, R., Subhan Qureshi, M. and Shahibzada, S., 2011. Protective effect of milk thistle (Silybum marianum) against aflatoxin B1 in broiler chicks. Journal of Animal Science. 24: 1011-101.
  22. Clic, K. and Ersoy, I., 2003. The using of organic acid in California Turkey chicks and its effects on effects of performance before pasturing. Poultry Science. 2: 446-449.
  23. Morrisy, P.A., Buckley, D.J. and Sheely, P.J.A., 1994. Vitamin E and meat quality. Proceeding of the Nutrition Society. 53: 289-295.
  24. Zaghari, M., Taherkhani, R., Chasemi, M. and Shivazad, M., 2009. Estimation of metabolize energy content of date pit and its effect on lipid and protein oxidant in broiler chicks. Food Science. 89: 2336-2341.
  25. Gibson, G.R. and Roberfroid, B., 1995. Dietary modulation of the human colonic microbiota: Introducingthe concept of prebiotics. Journal of Nutrition. 125: 1401-1412.
  26. Abu-Dief, E.E., Khalil, K.M., Abdel-Aziz, H.O., Nor-Eldin, E.K. and Ragab, E.E., 2015. Histological Effects of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles in Adult Male Albino Rat Liver and Possible Prophylactic Effects of Milk Thistle. Life Sci J. 12: 1-9.
  27. Adil, S.H., Tufail, B., Gulam, A., Saleemmir, M. and Rehman, M., 2010. Effect of dietary supplementation of organic acids on performance, intestinal histomorphology, and serum biochemistry of broiler chicken. Veterinary Medicine International. ID 479485. 1-8. https://doi.org/10.4061/2010/479485.
  28. Nobakht, A, and Shahriyar aghdam, H., 2010. Effects of mixture of medicinal herbs Malva sylvestris, Alhagi mauroum and Mentha spicata on performance carcass quality and blood metabolites of broiler chickens. Journal of Animal Science. 3: 51-63.
  29. Behrooz Lak, M.A., Hassan Abadi, A., Nasiri Moghadam, H. and Kermanshahi, H., 2014. Effect of different levels of cinnamon powder, with antibiotic and probiotic on performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens. Research on Animal Production, 5: 25-35.
  30. Gill, C.O., 1986. The control of microbial spoilage in fresh meats. Advances in Meat Research. Wesport, CT: AVI. 2: 48-49.
  31. Asghar, A., Gray, I.G., Booren, A.M., Gooma, A.E. and Abouzied, M.M., 1991. Effects of supranutritional dietary vitamin E levels on subcellular deposition of a tocopherol in the muscle and on pork quality. J. Sci. Food Agri. 57: 31-41.
  32. Jensen, C., Laauridsen, C. and Bartelsen, G., 1998. Dietary vitamin E: quality and storage stability of pork and poultry. Food Science and Technology. 9: 62-67.
  33. Fallahi, M., 1997. Translation of food processing technology, Flavez, P.J., (author). Bartara Publications. 510 p.