اثر کاهش سطح آب دریاچه ارومیه بر ترکیب جمعیتی آرتمیا اورمیانا

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

مرکز تحقیقات آرتمیای کشور، موسسه تحقیقات علوم شیلاتی کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، ارومیه، ایران

10.22034/AEJ.2020.252122.2373

چکیده

دریاچه ارومیه بزرگ ترین زیستگاه طبیعی گونه منحصر به فرد آرتمیا اورمیانا در جهان است. این دریاچه که در زمان پر آبی مساحتی حدود 5000 کیلومترمربع دارد، در سال 1355 به عنوان ذخیره گاه زیست کره در یونسکو ثبت شده است.در طی دو دهه گذشته توسعه بی رویه کشاورزی (80٪) و کاهش بارندگی (20٪) باعث کاهش سطح دریاچه به حدود 1661 کیلومترمربع در نوامبر 2018 گردیده است. این امر علاوه بر پیامدهای اقتصادی، اجتماعی، زیست محیطی و سلامتی بر ساکنان اطراف دریاچه، اثرات شدیدی نیز بر روی ترکیب جمعیتی آرتمیا و سیست آن گذاشته است. در این مطالعه اثر کاهش آب دریاچه ارومیه بر ترکیب جمعیتی آرتمیا طی 26 ماه از اردیبهشت 97 تا خرداد 99 مورد مطالعه قرار گرفته است. تعداد 8 ایستگاه در بخش های شمالی و جنوبی دریاچه تعیین گردید. نمونه برداری به صورت ماهانه انجام گرفت. برخی از عوامل فیزیکی و شیمیایی آب نظیر دمای آب، شفافیت، شوری، سطح تراز دریاچه، کل مواد جامد محلول (TDS)، هدایت الکتریکی (EC) مورد سنجش قرار گرفتند. هم چنین، تراکم اشکال زیستی آرتمیا شامل ناپلی، متا و جوان، آرتمیای بالغ و سیست تعیین گردید. آنالیز آماری با استفاده از نرم افزار PAST انجام گرفت. نتایج این مطالعه نشان می دهد که کاهش سطح آب باعث کاهش تراکم توده زنده و سیست آرتمیا گردیده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The effect of Urmia lake water withdrawal on Artemia urmiana population structure

نویسندگان [English]

  • Fereidun Mohebbi
  • Bayramali Dadashpour
  • Masoud Seidgar
  • Zhaleh Alizadeh Osalou
  • Yavar Rouhdad Golmankhaneh
National Artemia Research Center, Iranian Fisheries Science Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization, Urmia, Iran
چکیده [English]

Urmia lake is the largest natural habitat of a unique species of Artemia named Artemia urmiana. The lake has about 5000 km2 surface area when full, was recorded as biosphere reservoir by UNESCO in 1975. During last two decades, irregular development of agriculture (80%) and reduced precipitation (20%) have decreased decreased its surface area to about 1661 km2 in November 2018. This had either economical, social, environmental and pathogenic impacts on local people around Urmia lake or on Artemia population structure and its cysts. In this study, the effects of water withdrawal on the lake Artemia population was studied during 26 month period from April 2018 to May 2020. Eight sampling sites were selected in northern and southern parts of the lake. Samplings were performed monthly. Several physicochemical factors were determined such as water temperature, transparency, salinity, water level, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) and Electric Conductivity (EC). Furthermore, Artemia life stages including Nauplius, meta Nauplius, juvenile and adult densities were determined. Statistical analysis was carried out by PAST software version 3.04. the results showed that reduced water level imposed decreased Artemia biomass and cysts density.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Artemia urmiana
  • Cyst
  • Urmia lake
  • Water level
  • Salinity
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