تأثیر دفعات غذادهی و شوری بر فاکتورهای خونی، ایمنی و شاخص های استرس بچه ماهی ازون برون (Acipenser stellatus)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه شیلات، واحد لاهیجان، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، لاهیجان، ایران

2 موسسه تحقیقات بین المللی تاسماهیان دریای خزر، موسسه تحقیقات علوم شیلاتی کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، رشت، ایران

3 پژوهشکده آبزی پروری آب های داخلی، موسسه تحقیقات علوم شیلاتی کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، بندر انزلی، ایران

10.22034/AEJ.2021.294948.2581

چکیده

این مطالعه با هدف ارزیابی تأثیر دفعات غذادهی و شوری بر بر فاکتورهای خونی، ایمنی و شاخص ­های استرس بچه ماهی ازون برون پرورشی (Acipenser stellatus) در سال 1399 انجام شد. به همین منظور 810 بچه ماهی اوزون برون (میانگین وزن 12/24 گرم) در 9 تیمار و هریک با سه تکرار با سه سطح شوری و سه سطح دفعات غذادهی درنظر گرفته ­شدند. تیمارها شامل این موارد بودند: تیمار1: دو بار غذادهی در روز و شوری صفر، تیمار2: چهار بار غذادهی در روز و شوری صفر، تیمار3: شش بار غذادهی در روز و شوری صفر، تیمار4: دو بار غذادهی در روز و شوری 6 گرم در هزار، تیمار5: چهار بار غذادهی در روز و شوری 6 گرم در هزار، تیمار6: شش بار غذادهی در روز و شوری 6 گرم در هزار، تیمار7: دو بار غذادهی در روز و شوری 12 گرم در هزار، تیمار8: چهار بار غذادهی در روز و شوری 12 گرم در هزار و تیمار9:  شش بار غذادهی در روز و شوری 12 گرم در هزار. ماهیان به مدت هشت هفته پرورش داده شدند. سپس از ماهیان خونگیری به عمل آمد. نتایج نشان داد که در اکثر موارد تعداد گلبول­ های سفید، قرمز، اندیس های خونی در تیمارهای 4 و 6 بیش تر از سایر تیمار ها بودند (0/05>P). هم چنین میزان IgM، لیزوزیم و توتال ایمنوگلوبولین در تیمارهای 3 و 4 بیش تر از سایر تیمارها بودند (0/05>P). نتایج بررسی شاخص ­های استرس بیان کننده آن بود که میزان گلوکز و کورتیزول سرم خون ماهیان در تیمارها اختلاف معنی  دار آماری داشتند (0/05>P). با توجه به نتایج حاصله می توان گفت امکان پرورش ماهی ازون برون در شوری­ های مختلف را داشته و افزایش دفعات غذایی به این ماهی کمک می ­کند شرایط محیطی متفاوت را تحمل نماید. البته با توجه به مسایل اقتصادی و هزینه کارگر توصیه می ­شود ماهیان روزانه 4 بار در روز غذادهی شوند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The effect of feeding frequency and salinity on blood factors, immunity and stress indicators of stellate sturgeon (Acipenser stellatus) juveniles

نویسندگان [English]

  • Seyedeh Maryam Ahamadi 1
  • Habib Vahabzadeh 1
  • Hossein Khara 1
  • Zabih Ollah Pajand 2
  • Mohammad Sayad Borani 3
1 Department of Fisheries, Lahijan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Lahijan, Iran
2 International Sturgeon Research Institute of the Caspian Sea, Iranian Fisheries Sciences research, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Rasht, Iran
3 Inland Waters Aquaculture Research Center, Iranian Fisheries Sciences research, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Bandar Anzali, Iran
چکیده [English]

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding frequency and salinity on blood factors, immunity and stress indices of farmed stellate sturgeon (Acipenser stellatus) in 1399. For this purpose, 810 juvenile stellate sturgeon (average weight 12.24 g) in 9 treatments and each with three replications with three salinity levels and three feeding frequency levels were considered. Treatments included: Treatment 1: Twice daily feeding and zero salinity, Treatment 2: Four times daily feeding and zero salinity, Treatment 3: 6 times daily feeding and zero salinity, Treatment 4: Twice daily feeding and 6 g salinity Per thousand, treatment 5: four times a day feeding and salinity 6 grams per thousand, treatment 6: six times a day feeding and salinity 6 grams per thousand, treatment 7: twice daily feeding and salinity 12 grams per thousand, treatment 8: Four times feeding load 12 grams per day and salinity per thousand and treatment 9: 6 times per day and salinity 12 grams per thousand. The fish were reared for eight weeks. Blood samples were then taken from the fish. The results showed that in most cases, the number of white blood cells, red blood cells, blood indices in treatments 4 and 6 were higher than other treatments (P<0.05). Also, the amount of IgM, lysozyme and total immunoglobulin in treatments 3 and 4 were higher than other treatments (P<0.05). The results of stress indicators showed that the serum glucose and cortisol levels of fish had a statistically significant difference (P<0.05). According to the results, it can be said that it is possible to breed stellate sturgeon in different salinities and increasing the number of feedings helps this fish to withstand different environmental conditions. However, due to economic issues and labor costs, it is recommended to feed the fish 4 times a day.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Stellate
  • Feeding frequency
  • Salinity
  • Blood
  • Immunity
  • Stress parameters
  1. Billard, and Lecointre, G., 2001. Biology and Conservation of sturgeon and paddlefish. Rev. Fish Biol. Fish. 10: 355-392.
  2. Naderi Jolodar, M. and Abdoli, A., 2004. Fish species atlas of south Caspian Sea basin (Iranian waters), Iranian Fisheries Research Organization Press. Tehran, Iran. 80 p.
  3. Pourmozaffar, S., Nafisi Bahabadi, M., Movahedinia, A.A., M. Mohammadi, M. and Pazir, Kh., 2014. Effect of Salinity on Growth Performance, Hematological Variables and Gill Chloride Cells of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).  Journal of Experimental Animal Biology. 2(4): 1-14. (In Persian)
  4. Azodi, M., Nafisi Bahabadi, M., Morshedi, V., Ebrahimi, H. and Hamedi, Sh., 2016. The effects of different levels of water salinity on growth, feeding performance, body composition and physiologica responses in Asian sea bass (Lates calcarifer). Journal of Fisheries Science and Technology. 5(2) :99-112. (In Persian)
  5. Bernadette ،, Raedemaecker, F., McGrath, D. and Brophy, D., 2011. An experimental investigation of salinity effects on growth, development and condition in the European flounder (Platichthys flesus. L.). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 410: 39–44.
  6. Jain, N.C., 1993. Essentials of Veterinary, Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia, USA. 417 p.
  7. Marklund, S. and Marklund, G., 1974. Involvement of the superoxide anion radical in the auto-oxidation of pyrogallol and a convenient assay for superoxide dismutase. Eur. J. Biochem. 47: 469-474.
  8. Hung‚ S.S.O., Groff‚ J.M., Lutes‚ P.B. and Kofifiynn-Aikins‚ F.‚ 1990. Hepatic and intestinal histology of juvenile white sturgeon fed different carbohydrates. 87: 349-360.
  9. Chebanov, M. and Billard, R., 2001. The culture of sturgeon in Russia: Production of juveniles for stocking and meat for human consumption. Aquatic Living Resources. 14: 375-381.
  10. Kaneko, T. and Katoh, F., 2004. Functional morphology of chloride cells in killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) a euryhaline teleost with seawater preference. Fish Science. 70: 723-733.
  11. Giberson, A.V. and Litvak, M.K., 2003. Effect of feeding frequency on growth, food conversion efficiency, and meal size of juvenile Atlantic sturgeon and shortnose sturgeon. N. Am. J. Aquacult. 65: 99-105.
  12. Andrei, R.C., Cristea, V., Dediu, L., Crețu, M. and Docan A.I., 2017. Morphometric characteristics and length-weight relationship of Russian sturgeon juveniles fed with different ratio. Bulletin UASVM. Animal Science and Biotechnologies. 74(2): 119-126.
  13. Yazdani Sadati, M.A., Jafari, M. and Khara, H., 2016. The Effect of Feeding Frequency on Growth and Biochemical Factors of Cultured Ship Juvenile Sturgeon (Acipenser nudiventris). Journal of Oceanography. 7(25): 87-94. (In Persian)
  14. Lee, S., Fadel, J.G., Haller, L.Y., Verhille, C.E., Fangue, N.A. Hung, S.S.O., 2015. Effects of feed restriction on salinity tolerance in white sturgeon. Comp Biochem Physiol A. 188: 156-167.
  15. Vaz, P.G., Kebreab, E., Hung, S.O., Fadel, J.G., Lee, S. and Fangue, N.A., 2015. Impact of Nutrition and Salinity Changes on Biological Performances of Green and White Sturgeon. plos one. 10(4): e0122029.
  16. Nikookar, S.H., Moosa-Kazemi, S.H., Yaghoobi- Ershadi, M.R., Vatandoost, H., Oshaghi, M.A., Ataei, A. and Anjamrooz, M., 2015. Fauna and Larval Habitat Characteristics of Mosquitoes in Neka County, Northern Iran. J Arthropod-Borne Dis. 9(2): 253-266.
  17. Gao, Z., Wang, W., Abbas, K., Zhou, X., Yang, Y., Diana, J.S., Wang, H., Wang, H. and Li, Y., 2007. Hematological characterization of loach Misgurnus anguillicaudatus: a comparison among diploid, triploid and tetraploid specimens. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 147: 1001-1008.
  18. Saqgha, H.R. and Soroush Nia, M., 2003. Comprehensive book of laboratory products equipment. Mir Kitab Publications. 2687 p.
  19. Khoshbavar-Rostami, H.A., Soltani, M. and Hassan, H.M.D., 2007. Immune responses of great sturgeon (Huso huso) to Aeromonas hydrophila Journal of Fish Biology. 70: 1931-1938.
  20. Ellis, A.E., 1990. Lysozyme assay. In: Stolen, J.S., Fletcher, D.P., Anderson, B.S. and Robertson, B.S., editors. Techniques in fish immunology. Fair Haven, NJ, USA: SOS Publication. 101-103.
  21. Siwicki, K., Anderson, D.P. and Rumsey, G.L., 1994. Dietary intake of immunostimulants by rainbow trout affects non-specific immunity and protection against furunculosis. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 41(1-2):
    125-39. doi: 10.1016/0165-2427(94)90062-0.
  22. Barry, T.P., Malison, J.A., Held, J.A. and Parrish, J.J., 1995. Ontogeny of the cortisol stress response in larval rainbow trout. General and Comparative Endocrinology. 97: 57-65. https://doi.org/10.1006/gcen.1995.1006.
  23. Bhaskar, B.R. and Rao, K.S., 1985. Some hematological parameters of tarpon, Megalops cyprinoils (Broussenet) from Visakhapatnam harbor. Masty. 11: 63-69.
  24. Hickey, C.R., 1982. Fish hematology, its uses and significance. Game Journal. 23(2): 170-175.
  25. Casillas, E. and Smith, L.S., 1977. Effect of stress on blood coagulation and hematology in rainbow torut (Salma grindneri). Journal of Fish Biology. 10: 481-491.
  26. Collazos, M.E., Ortega, E., Barriga, C. and Rodrigeuez, A.B., 1998. Seasonal variation in hematological parameters of male and female Tinca tinca. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry. 183: 165-168.
  27. Garcia, M.P., Echevarian, G., Matrinez, F.J. and Zamora, Z., 1992. Influence of Blood Sample collection on the hematocrit value of two teleost rainbow trout (Oncahrhynclus bus mykiss) and European Sea bass (Dicentrachus has labrax L). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. 101: 733-736.
  28. Kieffer, J.D., Fuhlbrigge, R.C., Armerding, D., Robert, C., Ferenczi, K., Camphausen, R.T. and Kupper, T.S., 2001. Neutrophils, monocytes, and dendritic cells express the same specialized form of PSGL-1 as do skin homing memory T cells: cutaneous lymphocyte antigen. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 285: 577-587. [PubMed: 11453631]
  29. Aldrin, J.F., Messager, J.L. and Laurencin, F.B., 1982. La biochimie clinique en aquaculture. Interet et Perspect CNEXO Actes Colloq. 14: 291-326.
  30. Wedemeyer, G.A., McLeay, D.J. and Goodyear, C.P., 1984. Assessing the tolerance of fish and fish populations to environmental stress; The problems and methods of monitoring. In: Contaminant effects on fisheries (eds. Cairns, W.V., Hodson, P.V. and Nriagu, J.O.,). 164-195. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York.
  31. Kumar, R., Beguin, S. and Hemker, C., 1995. The effect of fibrin clots and clot-bound thrombin on the development of platelet procoagulant activity. Thrombosis and Haemostasis. 74: 962-968.
  32. Ranjbar, M., Mohammad Nejad, M. and Ghomi, M.R., 2020. Effect of Different Salinity on Growth Factors, Survival and Hematology Indices of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Journal of Animal physiology and development. 14(1): 87-98. (In Persian)
  33. Beyea, J.A., Olson, D.M. and Harvey, S., 2005. Growth Hormone (GH) Action in the Developing Lung: Changes in Lung Proteins After Adenoviral GH Overexpression. Developmental Dynamics. 234: 404-412.
  34. Hoseini, M. and Ghelichpour, M., 2012. Efficacy of clove solution on blood sampling and hematological study in Beluga, Huso huso (L.). Fish Physiol Biochem. 38(2): 493-498. doi: 10.1007/s10695-011-9529-5.
  35. Dicu, M.D., Cristea, V., Mirea, C., Placinta, S., Petrea, M. and Coada, M.T., 2013. Effects of different levels of dietary vitamins C on growth performance of stellate sturgeon (A. stellatus, Pallas, 1771). Animal Science and Biotechnologies. 46: 244-249.
  36. Yousefi, M., Abtahi, B. and Kenari, A., 2011. Hematological, serum biochemical parameters, and physiological responses to acute stress of Beluga sturgeon (Huso huso, Linnaeus 1785) juveniles fed dietary nucleotide. Comparative Clinical Pathology. 1-6. doi: 10.1007/s00580-011-1225-4.
  37. Zhou, H., Fujimoto, T., Adachi, S., Yamaha, E. and Arai, K., 2009: Genome size variation estimated by nuclear DNA content flow cytometry in ten sturgeon species and several interspecific hybrids reared in Japan. 6th international symposium on sturgeon. October 25-31, Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. Abstracts Oral Presentations. 61-62.
  38. Ahmdifar, A., Akrami, R., Ghelichi, A. and Mohammadi Zarejabad, A., 2010. Effects of different dietary prebiotic inulin levels on blood serum enzymes, hematologic, and biochemical parameters of great sturgeon (Huso huso) juveniles. Comparative Clinical Pathology. Springer.
  39. Asadi, F., Hallajian, A., Asadian, P., Shahriari, A. and Pourkabir, M., 2009. Serum lipid, free fatty acid, and proteins in juvenile sturgeons: Acipenser persicus and Acipenser stellatus. Comparative Clinical Pathology. 18: 287-289.
  40. Baker, D.W., Wood, A.M., Litvak, M.K. and Kieffer, J.D., 2005. Haematology of juvenile Acipenser oxyrinchus and Acipenser brevirostrum at rest and following forced activity. Journal of Fish Biology. 66: 208-221.
  41. Xiaotao, Sh.D., Ping, Z., Fen, N. and Liangqi, L., 2006. Comparative blood biochemistry of Amur sturgeon, Acipenser schrenckii, and Chinese surgeon, Acipenser sinensis. Fish Physiology and Biochemistry. 32(1): 63-66. DOI: 10.1007/s10695-006-7134-9.
  42. McKenzie, D.J., Cataldi, E., Di Marco, P., Mandich, A., Romano P., Ansferri S., Bronzi P. and Cataudella S., 1999. Some aspects of osmotic and ionic regulation in Adriatic sturgeon: II. Morphophysiological adjustments to hyperosmotic environments. Journal of Applied Ichthyology. 15: 61-65.
  43. Mirhosseini Moghadam, S.M., Vahabzadeh, H. and Khara, H., 2015. Optimum feeding frequency and ratio of pre-spawners of asterliad fish Acipencer ruthenus. National Aquaculture and Sustainable Aquatic Ecosystem Conference.
  44. Farabi, S.M.V., Hajimoradloo, A. and Bahmani, M., 2007. Study on salinity tolerance and some physiological indicators of ion -osmoregulatory system in juvenile beluga, Huso huso (Linnaeus, 1758) in the south Caspian Sea: Effects of age and size. Iranian Journal of Fisheries Sciences. 6(2): 15-32.
  45. Rahdari, A., Khosravanizadeh, A., Gharaei, A., Afshari, A. and Sarani, S., 2021. The efficacy of clove powder Eugenia caryophyllata as an anesthetic for snow trout Schizothorax zarudnyi broods and measurement of blood biochemical and immunity parameters. Journal of Animal Environmental. 13(1): 239-246. (In Persian)
  46. Beikzade Takori, A., Imanpoor, M.R. and Taghizadeh, V., 2015. Long time effect of oral cortisol on resistant to salinity changes in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758) fingerling. Nova Biologica Reperta. 2(2): 103-112. (In Persian)
  47. Hafez amini, P., Oryan, Sh. and Parivar, K., 2003. Effects of Nacl stress on blood glucose and cortisol in common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Iranian Scientific Fisheries Journal. 12(3): 35-42. (In Persian)
  48. Mohammadi Makundi, Z., Kochinin, P. and Pasha Zanusi, H., 2011. Effect of salinity on growth and survival of phytophagous fish (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix). Aquatics and fisheries Journal. 3(11): 19-26. (In Persian)
  49. Zaker, F., Imanpour Namin, J., Sattari, M. and Hadavi, M., 2016. Lysozyme activity in blood serum and epidermal mucus of Rutilus frisii in brackish and freshwater ecosystems. Journal of Aquaculture Development. 10(1): 53-61. (In Persian)
  50. Marc, A.M., Quentel, C., Severe, A., Lebail, P.Y. and Boeuf, G., 1995. Changes in some endocrinologic and nonspecific immunological parameters during seawater exposure in the brown trout. Journal of Fish Biology. 46: 1065- 1081.
  51. Yada, T., Azuma, T. and Takagi, Y., 2001. Stimulation of non-specific immune functions in seawater-acclimated rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss with reference to the role of growth hormone. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, part B: Biochemistry & Molecular Biology. 129: 695-701.
  52. Hirano, Sakamoto, T., Mabuchi, A., Norose, Y. and Yokomuro, K., 1993. Modification of T-lymphocyte subsets in peripheral blood, the liver, and the spleen during liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy of mice. Reg Immunol. 5(5): 293-298.
  53. Sakamoto, T. and Hirano, T., 1991. Growth hormone receptors in the liver and osmoregulatory organs of rainbow trout: characterization and dynamics during adaptation to seawater. Journal of Endocrinology. 130: 425- 433.