نوع مقاله : محیط زیست جانوری
1 گروه بیولوژی دریا، دانشکده علوم و فنون دریایی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد علوم و تحقیقات، تهران، ایران
2 موسسه تحقیقات علوم شیلاتی کشور، سازمان تحقیقات و آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، تهران، ایران
3 گروه شیمی دریا، واحد تهران شمال، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران
عنوان مقاله [English]
The aim of this study was to measure the concentration of the acetylcholinesterase (AChE), glutathione S-transferase and catalase as biomarkers of heavy metal contamination in pearl oyster Pinctada radiata and their mechanism in aquatic ecosystems. Heavy metals lead, cadmium and nickel were measured in soft tissue and studied stations in two seasons. Samples were collected seasonally in Lavan stations, Hendurabi and Nakhilo (in the northern Persian Gulf) from spring 2013 to winter of that year by scuba diving. Pearl oysters are divided according to their shells size; shells separated from soft tissues and were transferred to the laboratory for analysis of heavy metals and enzymes. Moopam standard method were used for measuring the concentration of heavy metals and for analyzing tissue concentrations of glutathione S-transferase in Clam the method recommended by Habig et al In 1974 were used. For measuring acetylcholinesterase Ellman method were used. Catalase contamination in pearl oyster in the supernatant obtained from the study based on the method homogeate soft tissue of mussels which Abeiwere evaluated.
The concentration analysis of heavy metals nickel, cadmium and lead in the soft tissue of Pinctada radiata in all three stations, respectively 0/12 ± 0/58 and 1/86 ± 0/04 and 1/94 ± 0/30 in parts per millionThe, concentration of acetylcholinesterase at several stations, in large and small sizes and in the seasons had no significant difference. Variations of catalase, and glutathione S-transferase were almost similar to each other and parameters, station and seasons were significantly different in the concentrations of these enzymes. Seasonal changes in antioxidant enzymes related to (assuming a constant in salinity and oxygen) to age, reproductive cycle, and availability of food and water temperature. With increasing temperature at warm season, antioxidant enzymes were increase, with increasing temperature and abundance of food in the environment the amount of antioxidant enzymes may increase. The presence of the enzyme concentration may indicate that the higher levels of the enzyme to eliminate ROS activities to be any healthier situation. At the time of gonads maturation and spawning season catalase activity increases. This study also indicates that catalase was significantly higher in the warm season. Due to low pollutants of heavy metals in the study area, a lower level of contaminants were observed in shellfish tissue incidents of international standards and strong correlation between the amount of heavy metal contamination in pearl oyster tissue and enzymes was not observed, Therefore, we can say that the pearl oyster remains in a healthy condition and the amount of enzyme is normal.