تأثیر سطوح مختلف استات سدیم جیره بر کارآیی رشد و فعالیت آنزیم های گوارشی روده ماهی طلایی (Carassius auratus)

نوع مقاله: محیط زیست جانوری

نویسندگان

1 گروه شیلات، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه گیلان، صومعه سرا، ایران

2 گروه شیلات، دانشکده شیلات و محیط زیست، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان، گرگان، ایران

چکیده

در این تحقیق، تأثیر سطوح مختلف استات سدیم جیره بر رشد و فعالیت آنزیم­­ های گوارشی روده ماهی طلایی (Carassius auratus) مورد مطالعه قرار گرفت. به این منظور 120 قطعه ماهی طلایی با وزن متوسط 1/29±14/24 گرم در 4 تیمار و 3 تکرار تقسیم شدند. تیمارها شامل غلظت­ های متفاوتی از نمک استات سدیم با مقادیر صفر (شاهد)، 2/5، 5 و 10 گرم به ­ازای هر کیلوگرم غذا بود. ماهی ­ها روزانه 3 بار در حد سیری و به­ مدت 75 روز غذادهی شدند. هر دو هفته یک­ بار زیست­ سنجی انجام شد و در پایان دوره آزمایش در هر تیمار از 6 ماهی جهت سنجش فعالیت آنزیم ­های پروتئاز و لیپاز نمونه ­برداری شد. نتایج به ­دست آمده نشان داد ماهیان تغذیه شده با 5 گرم نمک استات سدیم در هرکیلوگرم غذا، دارای بیش ­ترین وزن نهایی بودند، به ­طوری ­که اختلاف معنی­ دار آماری بین این تیمار در مقایسه با سایر تیمار­ها وجود داشت (0/05>P) اما تفاوت معنی ­دار آماری در دیگر شاخص ­های رشد اندازه ­گیری شده بین تیمار شاهد و تیمار­های تغذیه شده با نمک استات سدیم مشاهده نشد (0/05<P). از لحاظ میزان فعالیت آنزیم ­های لیپاز و پروتئاز نیز بین تیمارهای مختلف اختلاف معنی ­دار آماری مشاهده نشد (0/05<P). نتایج آزمایش کنونی نشان داد که استفاده از 5 گرم برکیلوگرم نمک استات سدیم در جیره غذایی ماهی طلایی می ­تواند باعث افزایش رشد این ماهی شده ولی تأثیری بر فعالیت آنزیم ­­های گوارشی روده ندارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


  1. مقدسی، ب.؛ منوچهری، ح. و اهدایی، م.، 1389. بررسی امکان رنگ ­آمیزی مصنوعی ماهیان گرین ترور (Aequidens rivulatus) از طریق تزریق. مجله بیولوژی دریا. سال 2، شماره 1، صفحات 57 تا 64.
  2. Baruah, K.; Pal, A.K.; Sahu, N.P.; Jain, K.K.; Mukherjee, S.C. and Debnath, D., 2005. Dietary protein level, microbial phytase, citric acid and their interactions on bone mineralization of Labeo rohita (Hamilton) juveniles. Aquaculture Research. Vol. 36, pp: 803-812.
  3. Boskou, G. and Debevere, J., 2000. Shelf life extension of cod fillets with an acetate buffer spray prior to packaging under modified atmosphere. Food Additives and Contaminants. Vol. 17, pp: 17-25.
  4. Cahu, C.; Zambonino Infante, J.; Quazuguel, P. and Le Gall, M., 1999. Protein hydrolysate vs. fish meal in compound diets for 10-day old sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax larvae. Aquaculture. Vol. 171, pp: 109-119.
  5. Castillo, S.; Rosales, M.; Pohlenz, C. and Gatlin, D., 2014. Effects of organic acids on growth performance and digestive enzyme activities of juvenile red drum Sciaenops ocellatus. Aquaculture. Vol. 433, pp: 6-12. 
  6. Correa da Silva, B.; Nascimento Vieira, F.; Pedreira Mouri, L.; Bolivar, N. and Quadros Seiffert, W., 2014. Butyrate and propionate improve the growth performance of Litopenaeus vannamei. Aquaculture Research. Vol. 35, pp: 1-12.
  7. Da Silva, B.C.; do Nascimento Vieira, F.; Mouriño, J.L.P.; Ferreira, G.S. and Seiffert, W.Q., 2013. Salts of organic acids selection by multiple characteristics for marine shrimp nutrition. Aquaculture. Vol. 384, pp: 104-110.
  8. De Wet, L., 2005. Organic acids as performance enhancers. Aqua Feeds: Formulation and Beyond. Vol. 2, pp: 12-14.
  9. Ergun, S. and Erdem, M., 2000. Effect of natural and synthetic carotenoid sources on pigmentation of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Turk. J. Vet. Anim. Sci. Vol. 24, pp: 391-402.
  10. Garcia-Carreno, F.L. and Haard, N.F., 1993. Characterization of proteinase classes in Langostilla pleuroncodes planipes and Crayfish Pacifastacus astacus extracts. Journal of Food Biochemistry. Vol. 17, pp: 97-113.
  11. Gislason, G.; Olsen, R. and Ringø, E., 1994. Lack of growth‐stimulating effect of lactate on Atlantic Salmon, Salmo salar L. Aquaculture Research. Vol. 25, pp: 861-862.
  12. Gouveia, L.; Rema, P.; Pereira, O. and Empis, J., 2003. Colouring ornamental fish (Cyprinus carpio and Carassius auratus) with microalgal biomass. Aquaculture Nutrition. Vol. 9, pp: 123–129.
  13. Hossain, M.A.; Pandey, A. and Satoh, S., 2007. Effects of organic acids on growth and phosphorus utilization in red sea bream Pagrus major. Fisheries Science. Vol. 73, pp: 1309-1317.
  14. Hoseinifar, S.H.; Roosta, Z.; Hajimoradloo, A. and Vakili, F., 2015. The effects of Lactobacillus acidophilus as feed supplement on skin mucosal immune parameters, intestinal microbiota, stress resistance and growth performance of black swordtail (Xiphophorus helleri). Fish & Shellfish Immunology. Vol. 42, No. 2, pp: 533-538.
  15. Hoseinifar, S.H.; Sun, Y.Z. and Caipang, C.M., 2016. Short chain fatty acids as feed supplements for sustainable aquaculture: an updated view. Aquaculture Research. Vol. 48, pp: 1380-1391.
  16. Iijima, N.; Tanaka, S. and Ota, Y., 1998. Purification and characterization of bile salt-activated lipase from the hepatopancreas of red sea bream (Pagrus major). Fish Physiology and Biochemistry. Vol. 18, pp: 59-69.
  17. Lim, C.; Lückstädt, C.; Webster, C.D. and Kesius, P., 2015. Organic Acids and Their Salts. In: Dietary Nutrients, Additives, and Fish Health. Edited by Lee,C.S.; Lim, C.; Delbert, M. and Gatlin, D., Willy Blackwell. USA. pp: 305-319.
  18. Lopez-Vasquez, K.; Castro-Perez, C.A. and Val, A.L., 2009. Digestive enzymes of eight Amazonian teleosts with different feeding habits. Journal of Fish Biology. Vol. 74, pp: 1620-1628.
  19. Lückstädt, C., 2006. Acidifiers in aquaculture prove beneficial, Feed Mix. Vol. 14, pp: 11-12.
  20. Munakata, A. and Kobayashi, M., 2010. Endocrine control of sexual behavior in teleost fish. General and Comparative Endocrinology. Vol. 165, pp: 456-468.
  21. Nandeesha, M.C.; Gangadhar, B.; Keshavanath, P. and Varghese, T.J., 2000. Effect of dietary sodium chloride supplementation on growth, biochemical composition and digestive enzyme activity of young Cyprinus carpio (Linn.) and Cirrhinus mrigala (Ham.). Journal of Aquaculture in the Tropics. Vol. 15, No. 2, pp: 135-144.
  22. Nermeen, M.A. and Naela, M.R., 2014. Eubiotic effect of a dietary acidifier (potassium diformate) on the health status of cultured Oreochromis niloticus. Journal of Advanced Research. Vol. 6, pp: 621-629.
  23. Ng, W.K.; Koh, C.B.; Sudesh, K. and Siti‐Zahrah, A., 2009. Effects of dietary organic acids on growth, nutrient digestibility and gut microflora of red hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis sp., and subsequent survival during a challenge test with Streptococcus agalactiae. Aquaculture Research. Vol. 40, No. 13, pp: 1490-1500.
  24. Owen, M.; Waines, P.; Bradley, G. and Davies, S., 2006. The effect of dietary supplementation of sodium butyrate on the growth and microflora of Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822). Proceedings of the XII International Symposium on Fish Nutrition and Feeding. Biarritz, France. 147 p.
  25. Perdikaris, C.; Nathanailides, C.; Gouva, E.; Gabriel, U.U.; Bitchava, K.; Athanasopoulou, F. and Paschos, I., 2010. Size-relative effectiveness of clove oil as an anaesthetic for rainbow trout and goldfish (Carassius auratus). Acta Veterinaria Brno. Vol. 79, pp: 481-490.
  26. Pérez-Jiménez, A.; Guedes, M.J.; Morales, A.E. and Oliva-Teles, A., 2007. Metabolic responses to short starvation and refeeding in (Dicentrarchus labrax): Effect of dietary composition. Aquaculture. Vol. 265, pp: 325-335.
  27. Ramsden, S.R.; Smit, T.J.; Shaw, B.J. and Handy, R.D., 2009. Dietary exposure to titanium dioxide nanoparticles in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): No effect on growth, but subtle biochemical disturbances in the brain. Ecotoxicology. Vol. 18, pp: 939-951.
  28. Ramli, N.; Heindl, U. and Sunanto, S., 2005. Effect of potassium-diformate on growth performance of tilapia challenged with Vibrio anguillarum. In World Aquaculture Society Conference. Bali, Indonesia. January 2005.
  29. Reda, R.M.; Mahmoud, R.; Selim, K.M. and El-Araby, I.E., 2016. Effects of dietary acidifiers on growth, hematology, immune response and disease resistance of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Fish & Shellfish Immunology. Vol. 50, pp: 255-262.
  30. Ringø, E.; Olsen, R.E. and Castell, J.D., 1994. Effect of dietary lactate on growth and chemical composition of Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society. Vol. 25, pp: 483-486.
  31. Romano, N.; Koh, C.B. and Ng, W.K., 2015. Dietary microencapsulated organic acids blend enhances growth, phosphorus utilization, immune response, hepatopancreatic integrity and resistance against Vibrio harveyi in white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Aquaculture. Vol. 435, pp: 228-236.
  32. Rungruangsak-Torrissen, K.; Moss, R.; Andersen, L.; Berg, A. and Waagbo, R., 2006. Different expressions of trypsin and chymotrypsin in relation to growth in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L). Fish Physiology and Biochemistry. Vol. 32, pp: 7-23.
  33. Rungruangsak‐Torrissen, K.; Rustad, A.; Sunde, J.; Eiane, S.A.; Jensen, H.B.; Opstvedt, J.; Nygård, E.; Samuelsen, T.A.; Mundheim, H. and Luzzana, U., 2002. In vitro digestibility based on fish crude enzyme extract for prediction of feed quality in growth trials. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. Vol. 82, pp: 644-654.
  34. Sallam, K.H.I. and Samejima, K., 2004. Microbiological and chemical quality of ground beef treated with sodium lactate and sodium chloride during refrigerated storage. Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft und-Technologie/ LWT-Food Science and Technology. Vol. 37, pp: 865-871.
  35. Sarker, M.S.A.; Satoh, S. and Kiron, V., 2007. Inclusion of citric acid and/or amino acid-chelated trace elements in alternate plant protein source diets affects growth and excretion of nitrogen and phosphorus in red sea bream Pagrus major. Aquaculture. Vol. 262, pp: 436-443.
  36. Sherif, A.H. and Doaa, M.G., 2013. Studies on the effect of acidifier on cultured Oreochromis niloticus fish. Journal of the Arabian Aquaculture Society. Vol. 8, pp: 229-236.
  37. Silva, B.C.; Nolasco-Soria, H.; Magallon-Barajas, F.; Civera-Cerecedo, R.; Casillas-Hernandez, R. and Seiffert, W., 2015. Improved digestion and initial performance of whiteleg shrimp using organic salt supplements. Aquaculture Nutrition. Vol. 385, pp: 202-301.
  38. Sunde, J.; Taranger, G. and Rungruangsak-Torrissen, K., 2001. Digestive protease activities and free amino acids in white muscle as indicators for feed conversion efficiency and growth rate in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L). Fish Physiology and Biochemistry. Vol. 25, pp: 335-345.
  39. Tabrizi, J.M.; Barzeghar, A.; Farzampour, S.; Mirzaii, H. and Safarmashaei, S., 2012. Study of the effect of prebiotic (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and acidifier on growth parameters in grower's rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Annals of Biological Research. Vol. 3, pp: 2053-2057.
  40. Thaela, M.J.; Jensen, M.S.; Pierzynowski, S.G.; Jakob, S. and Jensen, B.B., 1998. Effect of lactic acid supplementation on pancreatic secretion in pigs after weaning. Journal of Animal and Feed Sciences. Vol. 7, pp: 181-183.
  41. Whittington, R. and Chong, R., 2007. Global trade in ornamental fish from an Australian perspective: the case for revised import risk analysis and management strategies. Preventive Veterinary Medicine. Vol. 81, No. 1, pp: 92-116.