ارزیابی آلودگی فلزات سنگین روی، نیکل، کروم، سرب، کادمیوم، مس و آهن در آب، رسوبات سطحی و جلبک های سواحل شمالی دریای مکران در فصل تابستان 1399

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه محیط زیست، دانشکده منابع طبیعی و محیط زیست، دانشگاه بیرجند، بیرجند، ایران

2 گروه محیط زیست، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه اردکان، اردکان، ایران

چکیده

این تحقیق با هدف ارزیابی غلظت فلزات سنگین در آب، رسوبات سطحی و جلبک ­های 12 ایستگاه در سواحل دریای مکران با 3 تکرار در فصل تابستان 1399 انجام شد. فلزات سنگین به کمک دستگاه جذب اتمی ConterAA700 سنجش شدند. میانگین فلزات سنگین روی، نیکل، کروم، سرب، کادمیوم، مس و آهن در آب به ­ترتیب 0/135، 0/061، 0/118، 0/018، 0/018، 0/036 و 0/123 میلی­ گرم در لیتر و در رسوبات 36/893، 25/952، 43/815، 21/588، 0/184، 32/525 و 24/069 میلی ­گرم در کیلوگرم به ­دست آمد. نتایج نشان بین فلزات سنگین روی، نیکل، سرب، کروم، مس، کادمیوم و آهن در آب، رسوبات و جلبک­ ها همبستگی مثبت و معنی ­داری وجود داشت (0/01>p )، اما در مورد فلز ارتباط بین فلزات روی ـ کادمیوم (0/364=r) و آهن ـ کادمیوم (0/280=r) همبستگی ضعیف بود (0/01<p ). غلظت فلزات روی، کروم، نیکل، مس، آهن، سرب و کادمیوم در رسوبات سطحی بالاتر از آب و جلبک­ های مورد مطالعه بود. براساس آنالیز خوشه ­ای فلزات سنگین مورد مطالعه در آب، رسوبات و جلبک­ ها به دو گروه عمده تقسیم ­بندی شدند. گروه اول شامل نیکل، آهن، روی، مس، سرب و کروم هستند و در گروه دوم فلز کادمیوم بود. گروه متفاوت خوشه ­ای نشان ­دهنده تفاوت در رفتار ژئوشیمیایی و منشا مختلف فلزات هستند. بنابراین فلزاتی که در یک گروه هستند دارای منشاء یکسان و طبیعی می ­باشند. ارزیابی ریسک سلامت نشان داد که برخی فلزات سنگین در منطقه مورد مطالعه می ­توانند سبب مشکلات بهداشتی و بیماری ­زایی در انسان شود. فاکتور انتقال فلزات سنگین به­ وسیله آب در جلبک­ ها برای فلز کروم، نیکل، سرب، کادمیوم، مس، روی و آهن بالاتر از 1 به ­دست آمد، اما فاکتور انتقال فلزات سنگین به­ وسیله رسوبات برای همه فلزات کم ­تر از 1 بود و در برخی موارد در دامنه 2/5-1 محاسبه شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of heavy metal pollution of Zinc, Nickel, Chromium, Lead, Cadmium, Copper and Iron in water, surface sediments and algae of the northern shores of Makran Sea in summer 2020

نویسندگان [English]

  • Elham Shahri 1
  • Mohammad Hossein Sayadi 1 2
  • Elham Yousefi 1
1 Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environment, University of Birjand, Birjand, Iran
2 Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environment, University of Birjand, Birjand, Iran
چکیده [English]

 The aim of this study was to evaluate the concentration of heavy metals in water, surface sediments and algae at 12 stations on the shores of the Makran Sea with 3 replications in the summer of 2020. Heavy metals were measured using the ConterAA700 atomic absorption spectrometer. The average heavy metals of zinc, nickel, chromium, lead, cadmium, copper and iron in water are 0.135, 0.061, 0.118, 0.018, 0.018, 0.036 and 0.123 mg, respectively. In liters and in sediments, 36.893, 25.952, 43.815, 21.588, 0.184, 32.55 and 24.069 mg/kg were obtained. The results showed that there was a significant positive correlation between heavy metals zinc, nickel, lead, chromium, copper, cadmium and iron in water, sediments and algae (p < 0.01), but in the case of metal, the relationship between zinc and cadmium (R=0.364) and iron-cadmium (r=0.280) correlation was weak (P>0.01). The concentrations of zinc, chromium, nickel, copper, iron, lead and cadmium in surface sediments were higher than the studied water and algae. Based on the analysis of studied heavy metal clusters in water, sediments and algae were divided into two main groups. The first group consisted of nickel, iron, zinc, copper, lead and chromium, and the second group consisted of cadmium. Different cluster groups represent differences in the geochemical behavior and different origins of metals. Therefore, the metals in a group have the same and natural origin. Health risk assessment showed that some heavy metals in the study area can cause health problems and pathogenicity in humans. The transfer of heavy metals by water in algae for chromium, nickel, lead, cadmium, copper, zinc and iron was higher than 1, but the transfer of heavy metals by sediments for all metals was less than 1 and in some cases it was calculated in the range of 1-2.5.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Algae
  • Makran Sea
  • sediments
  • heavy metals
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