تنوع گونه‌ای زنبورهای Encarsia Förster (Chalcidoidea: Aphelinidae) در برخی مناطق استان گیلان

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

گروه کشاورزی، واحد یادگار امام خمینی (ره)، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، شهرری، ایران

چکیده

زنبورهای جنس Encarsia Förster (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Aphelinidae) جزو پارازیتوئیدهای کارآمد طیف وسیعی از سفید بالک‌ ها (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) و شپشک‌ ها (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) در مزارع، باغات و گلخانه‌ ها می‌ باشند که نقش مهمی در کنترل بیولوژیک این آفات ایفاء می‌ نمایند. در این بررسی، تنوع گونه‌ ای این حشرات مفید در استان گیلان مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. طی نمونه‌ برداری‌ های انجام شده در برخی مناطق این استان براساس جمع‌ آوری و پرورش پوره‌ های سفید بالک‌ ها و شپشک‌ ها به  عنوان میزبان‌ های مهم زنبورهای Encarsia، در مجموع یازده گونه شامل Encarsia aurantii (Howard, 1894) ، Encarsia azimi (Hayat, 1986)، Encarsia berlesei (Howard, 1906)، Encarsia citrina (Craw, 1891)، Encarsia fasciata (Malenotti, 1917)، Encarsia formosa (Gahan, 1924)، Encarsia inaron (Walker, 1839)، Encarsia lounsburyi (Berlese and Paoli, 1916)، Encarsia lutea (Masi, 1909)، Encarsia perniciosi (Tower, 1913) و Encarsia smithi (Silvestri, 1926) جمع‌ آوری و شناسایی گردیدند. گونه E. smithi برای نخستین بار از استان گیلان گزارش می‌ شود. در پژوهش حاضر، علاوه بر معرفی زنبورهای  Encarsia spp در استان گیلان، اطلاعاتی در رابطه با گروه تاکسونومیک، دامنه میزبانی و پراکنش هر یک از گونه‌ ها ارائه شده است. 

کلیدواژه‌ها


  1. Abd-Rabou, S. and Ghahari, H., 2004. A revision of Encarsia (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) species from Iran. Egyptian Journal of Agriculture Research. Vol. 82, No. 2, pp: 647-684.
  2. Abd-Rabou, S. and Ghahari, H., 2007. Key to the Encarsia species - groups and species - groups Eretmocerus with a list of specialists of Encarsia and Eretmocerus of the world. Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica-Hungarica. Vol. 42, No. 2, pp: 361-366.
  3. Abd-Rabou, S. and Evans, G.A., 2011. An annotated list of species of the family Aphelinidae inEgypt with a key to the genera (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea). Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica. Vol. 46, No. 2, pp: 297-309.
  4. Abd-Rabou, S.; Ghahari, H.; Myartseva, S.N. and Ruíz Cancino, E., 2013. Iranian Aphelinidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea). Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies. Vol. 1, No. 4, pp: 116-140.
  5. Abd-Rabou, S. and Evans, G.A., 2019. An annotated list of species of Genus Encarsia in Egypt with new records of species and hosts (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Aphelinidae: Coccophaginae). Egyptian Journal of Plant Protection Research Institute. Vol. 2, No. 2, pp: 217-221.
  6. Abd-Rabou, S.; Samin, N.; Coronado-Blanco, J.M. and Sakenin, H., 2019. New records of Aphelinidae from Iran, and updated checklist of Iranian Aphelinidae, Azotidae and Eriaporidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea). Egyptian Journal of Plant Protection Research. Vol. 2, No. 1, pp: 67-71.
  7. Ale-Mansoor, H., 1992. Distribution, host range, and natural enemies of the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) in Fars province. M.Sc thesis, Shiraz University. 228 p. [in Persian, English summary]
  8. Babcock, C.S. and Heraty, J.M., 2000. Molecularmarkers distinguishing Encarsia formosa and Encarsia luteola (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). Annals Entomological Society America. Vol. 93, pp: 738-744.
  9. DeBach, P. and Rosen, D., 1991. Biological control by natural enemies. Cambridge University Press. 440 p.
  10. Evans, G.A.; Polaszek, A. and Bennett, F.D., 1995. The taxonomy of Encarsia flavoscutellum species-group (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) parasitoids of Hormaphididae (Homoptera: Aphidoidea). Oriental Insects. Vol. 29, pp: 33-45.
  11. Ghahari, H. and Hatami, B., 2000. Study on natural enemies of whiteflies (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) in Isfahan province. Journal of Entomological Society of Iran. Vol. 20, No. 1, pp: 1-24. [in Persian, English Summary]
  12. Ghahari, H.; Abd-Rabou, S.; Hayat, M. and Schmidt, S., 2004. Faunstic surveys on Encarsia spp. (Chalcidoidea: Aphelinidae) in Mazandaran, Golestan and Isfahan provinces. Proceedings of 16th Iranian Plant Protection Congress. 156 p.
  13. Ghahari, H.; Huang, J. and Abd-Rabou, S., 2011. A contribution to the Encarsia and Eretmocerus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) species from the Arasbaran Biosphere Reserve and vicinity, northwestern Iran. Archives of Biological Science Belgrade. Vol. 63, No. 3, pp: 867-878.
  14. Gurr, G. and Wratten, S.D., 2000. Biological Control: Measures of Success. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, Massachusetts. 429 p.
  15. Hayat, M., 1983. The genera of Aphelinidae (Hymenoptera) of the world. Systematic Entomology. Vol. 8, pp: 63-102.
  16. Hayat, M., 1989. A revision of the species of Encarsia Forster (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) from India and the adjacent countries. Oriental Insects. Vol. 23, pp: 1-131.
  17. Hayat, M., 1998. Aphelinidae of India (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea): a taxonomic revision. Memoirs on Entomology, International. Vol. 13, pp: 1-416.
  18. Hayat, M., 2011. Additions to the Indian Aphelinidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) - III: the genus Encarsia Förster. Oriental Insects. Vol. 45, No. 2-3, pp: 202-274.
  19. Heraty, J.M. and Polaszek, A., 2000. Morphometric analysis and descriptions of selected species in the Encarsia strenua group (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). Journal of Hymenoptera Research. Vol. 9, pp: 142-169.
  20. Heraty, J.M.; Polaszek, A. and Schauff, M.E., 2008. Systematics and biology of Encarsia, pp. 71-87. In: Gould, J., Hoelmer, K. and Goolsby, J. (eds), Classical biological control of Bemisia tabaci in the United States. A review of interagency research and implementation. Progress in Biological Control. Springer Science and Business Media B.V. 343 p.
  21. Hoddle, M.S.; van Driesche, R.G. and Sanderson, J.P., 1998. Biology and use of the whitefly parasitoid Encarsia formosa. Annual Review of Entomology. Vol. 43, pp: 645-669.
  22. Huang, J. and Polaszek, A., 1998. A revision of the Chinese species of Encarsia Forster (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae): parasitoids of whiteflies, scale insects and aphids (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae, Diaspididae, Aphidoidea). Journal of Natural History. Vol. 32, pp: 1825-1966.
  23. Krishnan, B. and David, B.V., 1996. Records and descriptions of some aphelinid parasitoids of Aleyrodidae (Homoptera: Insecta) from India. JAI Research Foundation. Valvada 396 108, Gujarat, India. pp: 1-47.
  24. Liu, T.X.; Stansly, P.A. and Gerling, D., 2015. Whitefly parasitoids: Distribution, life history, bionomics, and utilization. Annual Review of Entomology. Vol. 60, pp: 273-292.
  25. Lopez-Avila, A., 1987. Two new species of Encarsia Forster (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) from Pakistan, associated with the cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). Bulletin of Entomological Research. Vol. 77, pp: 425-430.
  26. Modarres Awal, M., 2012. List of agricultural pests and their natural enemies in Iran. Third edition. Ferdowsi University Press. 759 p.
  27. Moghaddam, M., 2013. An annotated checklist of the scale insects of Iran (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha, Coccoidea) with new records and distribution data. ZooKeys. Vol. 334, pp: 1-92.
  28. Moghaddam, M., 2017. The scale insects of citrus in Iran (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha) (Identification, Biology, Natural Enemies and Distribution). Ministry of Jihad-e Agriculture, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization, Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protection. 177 p. [in Persian]
  29. Myartseva, S.N.; Cancino, E.R. and Coronado Blanco, J.M., 2012. Aphelinidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) de importancia agrícola en México. Revisión y claves. Universidad Autónoma de Tamaulipas. 400 p.
  30. Nikol'skaya, M. and Yasnosh, V., 1966. Aphelinidae of the European Part of the USSR and Caucasus. Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Moscow and Leningrad, Izdavaemie Zoologicheskim Institutom Akademii Nauk SSR. Vol. 91, 249 p.
  31. Noyes, J.S., 1982. Collecting and preserving chalcid wasps (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). Journal of Natural History. Vol. 16, pp: 315-334.
  32. Noyes, J.S., 2019. Universal Chalcidoidea Database. World Wide Web electronic publication. http://www.nhm.ac.uk/ chalcidoids (Accessed: March 2019).
  33. Polaszek, A.; Evans, G.A. and Bennett, F.D., 1992. Encarsia parasitoids of Bemisia tabaci (Hymenoptara: Aphelinidae, Homoptera: Alyrodidae): a preliminary guide to identification. Bulletin of Entomological Research. Vol. 82, pp: 375-392.
  34. Polaszek, A.; Abd-Rabou, S. and Huang, J., 1999. The Egyptian species of Encarsia (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae): a preliminary review. Zoologische Mededelingen, Leiden. Vol. 73, No. 6, pp: 131-163.
  35. Schauff, M.E.; Evans, G.A. and Heraty, J.M., 1996. A pictorial guide to the species of Encarsia (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) parasitic of whiteflies (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) in North America. Proceeding of the Entomological Society of Washington. Vol. 98, pp: 1-35.
  36. Schmidt, S.; Naumann, I.D. and De Barro, P.J., 2001. Encarsia species (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) of Australia and the pacific Islands attacking Bemisia tabaci and Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) - a pictorial key and descriptions of four new species. Bulletin of Entomological Research. Vol. 91, pp: 369-387.
  37. Schmidt, S. and Polaszek, A.,2007. The Australian species of Encarsia Förster (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea: Aphelinidae), parasitoids of whiteflies (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha, Aleyrodidae) and armoured scale insects (Hemiptera, Coccoidea: Diaspididae). Journal of Natural History. Vol. 41, No. 33-36, pp: 2099-2265.
  38. Shahbazvar, N.; Sahragard, A.; Manzari, Sh. and Hajizadeh, J., 2010. A faunal study of whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) and their parasitoids in Guilan province, Iran. Entomofauna. Vol. 31, pp: 269-284.
  39. Talebi, A.A., 1998. Identification of natural enemies and population dynamics of Bemisia tabaci (Hom.: Aleyrodidae) in cotton fields of Varamin and Garmsar, and studying of the parasitoids Encarsia lutea and Eretmocerus mundus (Hym.: Aphelinidae). Ph. D thesis of Tarbiat Modarres University. [in Persian, English Summary]
  40. Trjapitzin, V.A.; Myartseva, S.N. and Yasnosh, V.A., 1996. Parasites of whiteflies (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) of the fauna of Russia and adjacent countries. Entomological Reviews. Vol. 76, pp: 51-74.
  41. van Roermund, H.J.W. and van Lenteren, J.C., 1992. Life history parameters of the greenhouse whitefly and the parasitoid Encarsia formosa. Wageningen Agricultural University Papers. Vol. 92, No. 3, pp: 1-147.
  42. Viggiani, G., 1984. Bionomics of the Aphelinidae. Annual Review of Entomology. Vol. 29, pp: 257-276.
  43. Viggiani, G. and Mazzone, P., 1979. Contributi alla conoscenza morfo-biologica delle specie del complesso Encarsia Foerster - Prospaltella Ashmead (Hym. Aphelinidae). 1. Un commento sull΄ attuale stato, con proposte sinonimiche e descrizione di Encarsia silvestri n. sp., parasta di Bemisia citricola Gom. Men. (Hom.: Aleyrodidae). Bolletino del Laboratorio di Entomologia Agraria 'Filippo Silvestri', Portici. Vol. 36, pp: 42-50.
  44. Woolley, J.B., 1997. Aphelinidae, pp: 134-150. In: Gibson, G.A.P., Huber, J.T. and Woolley, J.B. (eds.), Annotated keys to the genera of Nearctic Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera). NRC. Research Press, Canada. 794 p.
  45. Yasnosh, V.A., 1989. Species of the genus Encarsia Foerster (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) -parasites of aleyrodids in the USSR. Proceedings of the Zoological Institute, Leningrad. Vol. 191, pp: 109-121.
  46. Yasnosh, V., 1995. Family Aphelinidae, key to the insects of the Russian Far East in six volumes. IV. Vladivostok: Dalnauka. pp: 506-551. [in Russian]
  47. Yasnosh, V., 2002. Annotated check list of Aphelinidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea), parasitoids of aphids (Homoptera: Aphidoidea) in Georgia. Proc Inst Zool, Georgian Academy of Sciences. Vol. 21, pp: 169-172.