مطالعه و مقایسه رفتار انتخاب محل آشیانه سازی دو زیرگونه گنجشک رودخانه‌ای (Passer moabiticus mesopotamicus Zarudny, 1904 and P. m. yatii Sharpe, 1888) در ایران

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه محیط زیست، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران

2 کمیته ثبت پرندگان ایران

10.22034/aej.2021.133076

چکیده

انتخاب محل آشیانه­ سازی یک جزء کلیدی برای بقاء پرندگان محسوب می ­شود که پویایی جمعیت‌ ها را تحت تأثیر قرار می­ دهد. بنابراین شناسایی خصوصیات محل آشیانه ­سازی یک گام اساسی برای حفاظت از زیستگاه ­های مطلوب گونه­ ها محسوب می ­شود. گنجشک رودخانه‌ ای با جمعیت‌ های پراکنده و دو زیرگونه در ناحیه جنوبی ایران به ­لحاظ تاکسونومی و بوم­ شناسی وضعیت مبهمی دارد. بررسی رفتار انتخاب زیستگاه در مقیاس خرد ابزاری سودمند برای آشکار شدن وضعیت این گونه و حفاظت از آن‌ها است. به این منظور در این مطالعه چندین متغیر زیستگاهی در نقاط حضور و عدم حضور این گونه در پلات­ های به شعاع 50 متر در پارک ملی کرخه شهرستان شوش (20نقطه حضور و 22 عدم حضور) و یکی از زیستگاه ­های شهرستان زابل (25 حضور و 15 عدم حضور) به‌ منظور تعین ارتباط و اهمیت این متغیرها با حضور و عدم حضور آن‌ ها اندازه‌ گیری و میزان معنی ­داری هر یک با استفاده از روش رگرسیون منطقی خطی بر اساس مدل تعمیم یافته خطی (GLM) مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. بر اساس نتایج به دست آمده از بین متغیرهای زیستگاهی (DBH، درصد درخت گز، درصد بوته بلند، بوته کوتاه و علفی، زمین بدون پوشش، فاصله با منبع آبی، ارتفاع درخت، استحکام درخت و قطر بزرگ و کوچک درخت در محل ساخت آشیانه)، درصد درخت گز و فاصله از آب مهم ­ترین متغیرهای محیطی موثر بر لانه­ گزینی هر دو زیر محسوب می ­شوند. با توجه به وابستگی این گونه به درخت گز و منابع آب شیرین، لازم است مدیران جهت حفاظت از این دو زیر گونه به‌ خصوص زیرگونه P. m. yatii، از آن­ جایی که این زیرگونه به لحاظ جغرافیایی و ژنتیکی منزوی شده است، توجه ویژه­ ای به حفاظت از گزستان های نزدیک به رودخانه ­ها و دریاچه هامون داشته باشند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Nest Site Selection by Two Subspecies of Dead Sea Sparrow (Passer moabiticus mesopotamicus Zarudny, 1904 and P. m. yatii Sharpe, 1888) in Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • Bita Shams 1
  • Mohammad Kaboli 1
  • Seyed Babak Musavi 2
1 Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
2 Iran Bird Records Committee
چکیده [English]

The choice of a nesting habitat is a key component of fitness for birds which influence population’s dynamic. Therefore, quantitative studies of habitat selection are fundamental for protecting species’ suitable habitat. Dead Sea Sparrow with sparse populations, and with two subspecies presence in southern of Iran. This species has unclear taxonomic and ecological situation. Surveying habitat selection behavior in micro-scale is a useful means for clarifying this species situation and its conservation. Here, we combined information from nest sites detected in 2018 in Zabol (25 Presence and 15 absent plots) and Karkhe National Park in Shoush (20 Presence and 22 absent plots), a set of environmental variables measured at landscape and fine spatial scales, and generalized linear models to identify patterns of nest site selection by two Dead Sea sparrow species.  These results revealed that among measured habitat variables (DHB, height and stability of nested tree, distance to water resource percentage of tamarix, bush, shrub and bare ground) tamarix tree percentage and distance to water have substantial role on presence, nesting and breeding of these sub species. Our results suggest that based on dependency of this specie to tamarix tree and water resource, in order to preserve this species specially P. m. yatii subspecies as it is geographically and genetically isolated, preserving of tamarix jungles near to rivers and Hamoon river should be accounted by managers.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Habitat variables
  • Dead Sea Sparrow
  • Nest site selection
  • generalized linear models
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