تخمین ساختار تنوع، تنگنای ژنتیکی سه جمعیت گوسفند بومی کشور عراق با استفاده از نشانگرهای میکروساتلایت

نویسندگان

1 گروه فن آورهای پرورش دام، دانشکده فنی المسیب، دانشگاه فنی الفرات الاوسط، بابل، عراق

2 گروه علوم دامی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تبریز، تبریز، ایران

10.22034/AEJ.2020.249143.2355

چکیده

هدف از پژوهش حاضر، تخمین شاخص ­های مولکولی، ساختار ژنتیکی، تنوع و تنگنای ژنتیکی در سه جمعیت گوسفند بومی عراق (عواسی، نعیمی و عرابی ) می­ باشد. بدین منظور، از تعداد 12 جایگاه میکروساتلایت با توزیع استقرارکروموزمی (1، 2، 5، 9 و 14 ) وطبق توصیه فائو و انجمن ژنتیک جهانی استفاده شد. تعداد 60 نمونه خون کامل حیوان (نر و ماده ) به صورت تصادفی از جمعیت های مربوطه در استان های کربلا، نجف و بابل تهیه شد. استخراج DNA، تعیین کمیت و کیفیت، واکنش زنجیره پلی مراز و الکتروفورز و عکس برداری با روش ­های متداول رایج انجام شد. از روش Allele Binning نیز برای تصحیح ژنوتیپ­ ها و به حد اقل رساندن خطای قرائت ژنوتیپ استفاده شد. تعداد بیش از 9 نوع شاخص آماری مولکولی (فروانی اللی، تعداد آلل­ های مشاهده شده و مورد انتظار، هتروزایگوستی مشاهده شده و مورد انتظار، محتوای چند شکلی، ضریب رایت، شاخص شانون، شاخص ­های آماره F و فاصله ژنتیکی و وضعیت باتلنگ ) بررسی شد. نتایج در دو بخش بررسی مطلوبیت جایگاه میکروساتلایت و ارزیابی تنوع ژنتیکی درون و بین جمعیتی ارائه شد. نتایج بخش اول نشان داد که بیش ترین پلی مورفیسم در نشانگرهای OarFCB226 و TGLA13 و بقیه کم ترین  پلی مورفیسم را ایجاد می ­کند. نتایج بخش دوم نشان داد که به ترتیب نژاد عواسی و عرابی بیش ترین و کم ترین تنوع را دارد. بیش ترین فاصله ژنتیکی بین دو نژاد عرابی و نعیمی و کم ترین بین نعیمی وعواسی بود. منحنی L-Shape باتلنک نشان داد که جمعیت­ های مورد مطالعه در تنگنای ژنتیکی قرار دارند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Estimation of Diversity Structure, Genetic Bottleneck of Three Iraqi Sheep Breeds using Microsatellite Markers

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hayder Raheem Alnajm 1
  • Sadegh Alijani 2
  • Arash Javanmard 2
  • Seyed Abbas Rafat 2
  • Karim Hasanpur 2
1 1 Department of Animal Production Techniques, Al-Musaib Technical College, Al-Furat Al-Awsat Technical University, Babylon, Iraq
2 Department of Animal Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran
چکیده [English]

  The aim of the present study was to estimate the molecular characteristics, structure, genetic diversity and genetic bottlenecks in the three sheep populations native to Iraq (Awassi, Naaimi, and Arabi). For this purpose, 12 microsatellite loci with chromosomal distribution distributions (1, 2, 5, 9 and 14) were used according to the recommendations of FAO and the International Society for Animal Genetics (ISAG). Sixty samples of whole animal blood (both sex) were randomly collected from the relevant populations in Karbala, Najaf and Babel provinces. The genomic DNA extraction, quality and quantity, preparation of PCR, electrophoresis photography was done accordingly based on standard available methods. After observation of raw genotype per investigated loci, allele binning was done for minimizing genotyping errors. More than 9 types of molecular statistical indices (allele frequencies, observed and effective number of alleles, observed and expected heterozygosity, PIC, Wright coefficient, Shannon index, F-statistical indices, genetic distance and the bottleneck) Checked out. The results were presented in two parts: evaluation of microsatellite loci utility and evaluation of genetic diversity within and between the population. The results of the first part showed that the highest polymorphism was observed in OarFCB226 and TGLA13 markers and the rest had the lowest polymorphism. The results of the second part showed that the Awaasi and Arabi breed have the highest and lowest diversity, respectively. The highest genetic distance was between Arabi and Naaimi breeds and the smallest was between Naaimi and Awassi breeds. Furthermore, bottleneck L-Shape curve showed that the studied populations are in a genetic predicament.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • genetic diversity
  • Microsatellite markers
  • native Iraqi sheep
  • Bottleneck genetics
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