عنوان مقاله [English]
Recent extinctions often resulted from humans retaliating against wildlife that threatened people’s interests or were perceived to threaten current or future interests. Conflict is any encounter between wildlife and humans or their property resulting in a contest or interference competition. Therefore, conflict includes humans harming animals or animals harming humans or their property claims, and the harm may be motivated by any reason (intention is irrelevant). The conflict between humans and carnivores in Iran has also grown significantly in recent decades. Among carnivores, the gray wolf (Canis lupus) has a higher conflict with humans and animals. Wolves are known in many countries as a common example of conflict with local people. In the Middle East, field observations and studies on the wolf diet indicate the dependence of this species on anthropogenic food resources (livestock, waste, etc.), which has led to a severe conflict between this species with local communities. Unfortunately, the conflict between humans and wolves has reached its peak in some parts of the country, especially in the western regions of Iran (Hamadan, Zanjan, Kurdistan, and Ardabil provinces) to the point that in recent years a number of local people, as well as a large number of livestock, have been killed by wolves. Therefore, addressing the ecological and behavioral aspects of this species is an important step in reducing conflicts. In this research, using a review of some important papers related to human-wolf conflict, we described some subjects into wolf diet, a wolf-dog hybrid, waste management, livestock and poultry carcass management, and management of wolf attacks on humans and livestock. An attempt has been made to use some of the latest findings of researchers in the world and studies conducted in Iran. The results of this study can be used to manage of human-wolf conflict in Iran.